The Size and Structure of the Universe
According to the Bible and Non-Theoretical Science
More Unyielding Evidence of Flagrant Deceptions
In The Measurement of Star Distances
...Keeping in mind what we’ve already seen in Part V about the Besselian parallax quicksand upon which the so-called "science" of measuring distances in space is built, let’s focus now on several pages of further hard evidence which shows that those fantastic distances are phony baloney from start to finish.
Anyone seriously looking at today’s textbook cosmological science which has tricked the world into believing that the universe is 15 billion years old and 15 billion light years thick must keep these twelve facts in mind as they continue to weigh what has gone before and what is to follow:
Fact One: The incomprehensibly old and vast universe that has been taught as scientific truth for generations is first and foremost an evolutionary concept from start to finish.
Fact Two: This evolutionary concept includes the acceptance of a belief that the Earth itself evolved c. 4 1/2 billion years ago.
Fact Three: The Copernican Revolution (officially launched in 1543) gradually established the belief that our Earth was just a lucky accident that happened to be the right distance from an ordinary star we call the sun. This belief begat the "logical" conviction amongst the "intelligentsia" that there would be other "earths" with other life on them amongst the ever increasing myriad of suns/stars that astronomers were allegedly finding and the ever increasing ages and distances they were assigned.
Fact Four: All of the points of light that were called stars that could be seen were too small and too far away for their distances to be determined by normal trigonometric and geometric methods. Undaunted, other pseudo mathematical means were formulated by Bessel in 1838. His formula immediately pushed the closest stars out to distances that had to be accounted for in multiple light years.
Fact Five: As pointed out [See: Size-Structure Pt 5, (pp. 4-7)], Bessel’s "breakthrough" in establishing mind-boggling distances to the stars--which is still the standard cosmological foundation for measuring distances to the stars today--was based on the unproved premise that the Earth orbits the sun. This premise allowed the base of a triangle to a star to be 186,000,000 miles, the diameter of the alleged orbit of the Earth around the Sun. If, however, the Earth is stationary with the sun orbiting it--as all observational evidence insists--then the base of that triangle is only 8,000 miles. That means that Besselian "math" puts the "nearby"stars 23,250 times too far out.
Fact Six: Time is the hero of the evolution plot, both for the universe and for Earth. Without the billions of years that the space "sciences" have assigned to the alleged evolution of the universe, the evolutionary explanation for all that exists takes its proper place at the top of the list of deceptions that has led mankind away from the truth about the universe, the Earth, and humanity itself.
Fact Seven: Though traceable to Pythagoras [See: Pythagoras], Aristarchus, et al, it wasn’t until The Copernican Revolution provided a mathematical model for a moving Earth that the physical sciences--powered by ever more arcane/occult mathematics--gradually got on the heliocentricity bandwagon. The effect of this Revolution was to remove the Earth and Mankind--along with the sun, moon, and stars--from being the entire focus of God’s Plan as stated in the "creation scenario" of the Bible (and similarly in the Koran)...to a "creation scenario" where there was no focus, no plan, and no need for God...or, certainly, no Biblical God offering a plan for eternal life to mankind. The Copernican Revolution not only declared the Bible wrong (and also the Koran [See: Koran]), and not only made the Earth and Mankind insignificant accidents in a universe full of star/suns with fantasized planets and evolving life forms, it also provided an open door for theoretical science to steadily expand the age and size of the universe to fit the present Big Bang Kabbala Model of the Pharisee Religion.
Fact Eight: The Copernican Revolution from its beginning to this very hour has been based on seven assumptions [See: Assumptions] [actually nine [See: Audio Sessions]] each one of which defies all observational and experimental evidence, and is upheld solely by: a) A clever mathematical model; and: b) A growing conviction now believed to be unshakable that the distances to the stars are so great that it is simply unimaginable that they could go around the Earth nightly as the Bible demands and as observation and photos confirm. [See: Size-Structure Pt 4]
Fact Nine: By its conquest of the Physical Sciences, the Copernican Revolution has gradually and almost completely destroyed the Bible’s claim to be the Absolute and Inerrant Truth from God. This success paved the way for the recent triumph of another "origins scenario" wherein the Earth and Mankind and the sun, moon, and stars were not unique and central to a great Plan by God, but rather were merely the by-products of the interaction of cosmic forces over eons of time since the alleged "Big Bang".
Fact Ten: With a "science"-endorsed rotating/orbiting Earth accepted virtually everywhere--including Christian Churches--the stage was set for the conquest of the Biological Sciences by those promoting the evolutionary mind-set. Though percolating for over a century before Darwin, it was he who gave the movement a "scientific natural selection" mechanism in 1859. Then the evolutionary premise for all that exists spread rapidly to the "Social Sciences" (K. Marx et al), the "Behavioral Sciences" (S. Freud et al), Philosophy and Education (F. Nietzsche, J. Dewey, A. Einstein et al), the Arts (Bartok, Picasso, Joyce et al), along with a century of physicists and astronomers [See: TSE Pt 1-Cosmic Ancestry]...culminating in NASA’s "Origins Program" of Kabbalists Sagan and Goldin [See: NASAs Agenda] and on to the present hour where Kabbalist Physicist Schroeder et al treat Big Bangism as if it is factual, and equate the Biblical six days with 15 billion years. [See: Kabbala 6]
Fact Eleven: The long-hidden fact that all of the essential components of today’s "science"-backed evolutionary explanation for all that exists, i.e., Billion of years; Copernicanism; Relativity; Big Bangism; an Expanding Universe... is really a religious "creation scenario", is now out in the open. As documented repeatedly on this webpage and confirmed by Kabbalist Physicist Schroeder [See: Kabbala 6] et al, Rabbinical writings in the Kabbala centuries ago described the Big Bang evolutionary "origins scenario" that is the basis of all of man’s "knowledge" today. [See: Knowledge Impact] In short, Big Bangism and all that goes with it is the fulfillment of an anti-Christ, anti-Bible religion of Pharisaic Judaism masquerading as "theoretical science".
Fact Twelve: There is an alternative model of the size and structure, age and purpose of the universe, the Earth, and mankind which is 100% Biblical, 100% scientifically viable, and 100% logical. This alternative model rests on the premise of a stationary Earth that is supported by all observational and experimental evidence. This solid premise reduces the size of the universe to less than one ten trillionth of what is cited in textbooks today.
With that said, it’s time to add to the list [See: NASAs Agenda - NASAs Hanky-Panky - Redshift Fraud] of ways that the space "sciences" have been and now are deceiving the world about the size and age of the universe and thereby maintaining the evolutionary mythology. Though there are enough quotations in the files beside me to make a good-sized book; I will try to present the meat of what is going on in the next 16 pages. Consider these quotations which tell of facts about space science and the comments that apply to those facts:
Quotation: "If one could look through the 200 inch telescope on Mt. Palomar, one would see stars as nothing more than the same points of light you would see by simply walking outside and looking up. Why are stars the sole hold out in the resolution revolution up to now? Simply put, stars are very small and very far away...." 1 (Note: Emph. added to many of the citations throughout.)
Comment: Even when we look through telescopes almost 17 feet wide the stars look the same as when we go outside and look up. What we see through a monster telescope costing many millions of $ is not altered, enhanced, resolved. Strange isn’t it? Why? Q:"...they are very small and very far away". (Yeah, and you have 26 different measurement "techniques" to get them "very far away", don’t you? [See: Size-Structure Pt 5. (p. 7)]
Quotation: "...But the atmosphere...blurs the ability to see detail.... This is why telescopes in space like HST [Hubble Space Telescope], are so important..." 2
Comment: Amongst some very pertinent background info on Edwin Hubble there is a statement made by Hubble himself about the so-called "Hubble Expansion" being attributed to him concerning the alleged recession of the stars from a Big Bang. This is a statement that is basically ignored by one and all: Hubble himself said: "There is no evidence of expansion and no restriction of the time scale, no trace of spatial curvature...." [See: TSE Pt 2-Hist.BigBang (pp. 4,5)] Wow! As for any other critics of turning to the Hubble Telescope for final answers, this astronomer aptly notes: Q: "...anything which decouples the link between redshift and expansion is viewed with horror, as both of these factors link to the age of the universe through the Hubble Constant." 3
Quotation: "...the Hubble Deep Field only surveyed 1/36 millionth of the sky!" 4
Comment: One 36th millionth! That’s a pretty small potato patch to be extrapolating about potatoes all over a universe that is 36,000,000 times bigger than your sample, isn’t it?
Quotation: "Concept designs for the ESO telescope, dubbed the ‘OverWhelmingly Large Telescope’ (OWL), call for an instrument with a 109 yard (100 meter) aperture [!] made up of segmented mirrors to peer deep into the universe.... At its heart is a system known as adaptive optics, which allows astronomers to correct for the blurring effect of the atmosphere.... OWL scientists hope their telescope could find...other potentially life sustaining biospheres.... OWL is expected to cost over $1,000,000,000...." 5
Comment: If blurring is a problem and space telescopes solve the problem, why are ten countries (ESO) planning an earth-bound "OverWhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL)" with an opening bigger than a football field that costs a Billion Bucks? Well, of course, to Q: "find other potentially life sustaining biospheres", what else?? Everything comes back to establishing the evolutionary mind-set for the universe, Earth, and Mankind. This is a religious "creation scenario", not science! The religion is Pharisaic Judaism; the holy book describing this "creation scenario" is the Zohar Kabbala. [See: Kabbala 1 ( p.5) - NASAs Spirit.Roots]
Quotation: "How did the universe begin and evolve? How did we get here? Are we alone?.... Our missions and research generate most of the coolest news coming out of NASA.... Our science stretches...to the beginning of the universe, billions of light years away." 6
Comment: NASA spokespeople regularly ask these deep, deep questions about the Origins of Everything. Then, as usual, Evolutionary Big Bang Expanding Universe answers are supplied in the next paragraph as if they were strictly secular conclusions with no religious bias. If, however, those "answers" have an indisputable religious origin that is many centuries old and that religion has always been the overt adversary of the Bible’s creation account, what does that mean to you?
Quotation: "Galaxy Evolution Explorer Mission Status, May 6, 2003 News Release, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology: ...engineers...have powered up both the digital processing unit, which houses the main computer, and the detector front-end electronics box, which contains the photon discrimination and processing logic....High voltage is essential for the telescope to gather the ultraviolet photons that will help scientists piece together the story of how and when stars form inside galaxies.... The Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission will image millions of galaxies across 10 billion years of cosmic history, which is 80-percent of the way back to the Big Bang...." 7
Comment: Obviously the Big Bang evolutionary mind-set with its 15 billion light year age for the universe is the mother of all that is programmed into the "main computer" and all it controls in this "gee whiz" operation. Is there anyone alive who thinks that anything that doesn’t fit that mind-set is going to be programmed into that computer?! The GEE mission "will image" [not "see"] millions of galaxies and they will be Q: "80 percent of the way back to the Big Bang". This "Explorer" knew precisely what it was to "discover" and report before it was launched!
Quotation: "Ground-based Optical/Near-Infrared large Telescopes are crucial tools...but their image quality is severely limited...leading to more and more sophisticated techniques....Until recently, the astronomical telescope has remained a 'passive instrument'.... Without any in-built corrective devices to improve the quality of star images during observations.... Because of the high bandwidth and the small field to which correction can be applied, adaptive optics uses a small deformable mirror.... In some current projects, the possibility of using a large deformable secondary mirror is being developed...." 8
Comment: There are plenty of $ going into "more and more sophisticated techniques" to build into telescopes "corrective devices to improve star images", including "deformable mirrors".... My Thesaurus equates "deformable" with "distorted, abnormal, misshapen, disfigured..." Does this sound like an all-out effort to accurately report what can really be seen where stars are concerned?? The images demanded by the evolution paradigm are created by this kind of fraudulent use of technology, pure and simple. Lot’s more on this [See: Redshift Fraud] where, along with other tech fraud in space "science", we learn that: Q: "The New Generation Space Telescope is designed to produce "a pretty ratty image that looks like an interference pattern [so that] a series of interference patterns can be combined to form a perfect synthesized image.." [See: NASAs Hanky-Panky (p.3) ] (Note: The name of the NGST has been changed to: the James Webb Space Telescope.)
Quotation: "No matter where astronomers point their telescopes, they see a distant sheet of light surrounding us. Beyond that shell of radiation, astronomers can see nothing...." 9
Comment: This author goes on to give the standard explanation, namely that this "radiation" is Q: "the faint afterglow of the big bang".... But wouldn’t the Biblical Model with its massively reflective crystalline "shell"--described throughout this series--also present astronomers with a "distant sheet of light surrounding us"??
Of course it would! Another key point here is that Q: "astronomers can see nothing" beyond that "shell of radiation". What they claim to see is fabricated and computer programmed, as this Creationist scientist who is beginning to smell a very big rat notes: Q: "It is well to remember that a great deal of modern cosmology, especially when its practitioners are trying to predict its destiny and rotrodict its origin, is sheer mathematical manipulation and evolutionary philosophical imagination. ‘It ain’t necessarily so!" 10 A hearty "Amen" to that!
Quotation: "Where do the laws of physics come from?" (an MIT astrophysicist was asked. He replied:) "We are a long way from being able to answer that one." 11
Comment: The Creationist scientist writing the article sums up his review of the Big Bang literature: Q: "...They simply do not know how our galaxy began. Even less could be known about other galaxies....It is well to remember that they do not know how the cosmos evolved--or stars, or galaxies, or anything else..." Wow! 12
Quotation: "A small spherical universe after all"? This is a sub-heading in a piece by a professional astronomer and a leading geocentrist who goes on to say: Q: "...researchers have particularly studied small universe models, which explain the billions of visible galaxies as repeating images of a smaller number of actual galaxies"[!]. (He continues): "...spherical spaceforms (geometries in which the universe is viewed as a sphere) have come back to the forefront of cosmology"[!]....13
Comment: You say you haven’t heard any such thing on your evening news?? Maybe its because that news is programmed by people with the same evolutionary fixation as those who are running NASA’s "Origins Program". They are spending Billions of your tax $ to promote the Kabbalist "creation scenario" whilst they simultaneously destroy Biblical Christianity. It’s the old "killing two birds with one stone" game. Problem is: Truth in science and in the Bible are the birds being killed!
Quotation: "The Doppler Redshift results from the relative motion of the light emitting object and the observer. If the source of light is moving away from you then the wavelength of the light is stretched out, i.e., the light is shifted toward the red...."14
Comment: The redshift voodooism is the life-blood of Kabbalic Big Bangism. Notice this from another source which addresses the "redshift controversy":
Quotation: "It is known that many astronomical observations cannot be explained by means of the ordinary Doppler shift interpretation. The mere examination of a recent catalog of objects having very large redshifts shows that among 109 quasi-stellar objects, in which both absorption and emissions lines could be measured, the value of the absorption redshift in a given object, is always different from the one measured in emission for the same object. It is clear that such results cannot be explained as being due solely to a Doppler redshift. A New mechanism must be looked for, in order to explain those inconsistent redshifts and many other observations related to the ‘redshift controversy’".... 15
Comment: The props that are holding up the Kabbalic Kosmos are threatening to give way on all sides. There is really no true scientific strength in those props. They are going to break and set off a veritable firestorm of God’s Truth that will begin with a non-moving Earth and lead to the unmasking of all of Satan’s deceptions upholding his Babylonish empire (Rev. 17:14). Notice these other props and how they are always fabricated out of the Kabbalic alloys of billions of years, heliocentricity, relativism, big bangism, and an expanding universe:
Quotation: "The Cosmological Redshift is a redshift caused by the expansion of space. The wavelength of light increases as it traverses the expanding universe.... The Gravitational Redshift is a shift in the frequency of a photon to lower energy as it climbs out of a gravitational field...." 16
Comment: This account brings up an interesting question about both of these baseless hypotheses: Q: "Astrophysical observations show that the electromagnetic radiation originating from cosmological objects is often redshifted. Except for some hypothesis such as assuming that it is a gravitational redshift, this has always been interpreted as a Doppler shift. To date, the interaction of light with interstellar gas has not been seriously considered as a possible mechanism responsible for the observed redshift because no known forward scattering process could be demonstrated to lead to an effect compatible with common astronomical observations." 17 Comment: Is it not time to consider retro-reflected starlight from the Biblical crystalline "shell" illuminating non-luminous bodies on the "far side" which are themselves reflected off of that shell? [See: Size-Structure Pt 7, (Figures 7-10)] Why can’t all this be the "mechanism responsible for the observed redshift and scattering process" that "is compatible with common astronomical observations"?!
Quotation: "Another interesting scientific problem for today’s astronomer is the direct observation of surface features on stars. Now, we only have high resolution photographs of the Sun in which we may see spots, prominences, flares.... We do not have comparable photographs of any other stars than our Sun....[!!]18 Comment: All of the fantastic claims of modern cosmology about billions of galaxies and trillions of stars that are millions and billions of light years away from Earth are pure hypothetical hogwash. They cannot even resolve the most elemental details of the closest star (which they claim is 24 trillion miles away [1.3 parsecs; 4.1 light years], which claim--you will remember--is based on using the assumed Earth orbit diameter of 186,000,000 miles to make a trigonometric triangle). "Listen" to this:
Quotation: "If we tried to observe alpha Centauri, our nearest solar-like star at a distance of 1.3 parsecs, its disk would have a size of 7 milliseconds of arc, almost 270,000 times smaller than the apparent size of the Sun! ...a very big telescope is necessary to resolve the star’s disk, let alone observe star spots on its surface. In fact, to see the surface of alpha Centauri in visible light we would need a telescope with a mirror diameter of 14 meters [c.45 feet], larger than the Keck telescopes in Hawaii. To resolve spots would require a telescope at least 100 times larger than that [c.4500 foot aperture!!]. Such a large telescope is well beyond our present day technology, if we try to construct one using a single mirror...." 19
Comment: Here is a plain admission that there are no ground based telescopes in existence that can see any characteristics whatsoever of even the closest star (which is 23,250 times closer than they say anyway!), and that the technology doesn’t exist to build one 15 football fields wide at the end. Hence, other means to keep the Kabbalist mythology afloat have to be invented...and cost be damned! Here is how this latest multi-billion dollar video game technology for astrophysicists is being played out:
Quotation: "...However, it is within our present capability [to see something on the closest star] if we use interferometric techniques. Invented by Albert Michelson in the 19th century [and used repeatedly with results showing no earth orbit!: Ed.], the interferometer makes use of separate telescopes that are widely spaced rather than on a single large mirror.... Most visitors to an optical interferometer will not recognize the array of optical elements as a normal telescope...." 20
Comment: If the "array of optical elements" don’t add up to a "normal telescope" then they must add up to an "abnormal telescope". What is an "abnormal telescope"? What does it tell us? Well...
Quotation: "The U.S. Navy [Huh? Why?] has a "prototype Optical Interferometer... outside Flagstaff, Arizona...which combines several small optical telescopes [which are] connected to each other [by vacuum tubes...an unmentioned "abnormality"]....their resolving capability is increased to that of a single 125 foot optical telescope.... But because the telescope lacks a large mirror, it can only see very bright objects, in fact, the human eye can pick out stars that the [interferometer] telescope cannot. [!!].... With conventional telescopes, the stars still really look like points of light. With optical interferometers, of which the Navy type is one, you can begin to see a thickness and a size to these objects....21
Comment: The human eye can pick out stars that this supposed telescopic marvel can not even pick out !! ...but with it you can begin to see a thickness "of these objects".... You figure it out! And these interferometer array abnormal telescopes are the cosmologist’s rage today...with big bucks laid out for construction in several countries around the world and with numerous University Grants.
With a reminder to go to NASAs Hanky-Panky for some more very interesting insights into the "abnormalities" involved in the construction and use of computer programmed telescopes (and cameras), and Redshift Fraud for more on Redshift and Infrared, let’s shift to another key area of the deception game in the Big Bang Drumbeat (BBD) about the universe being 15 billion years old and 15 billion light years thick:
The Celestial Sphere
Quotation: "The celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of gigantic radius with the earth located at its center...." 22
Comment: Plain enough....
Quotation: "The Celestial Sphere was (and remains) a useful way in which to represent the Universe and, in fact, it is still the way astronomers choose to model the observable sky...." 23
Comment: Gotcha! As these or any other descriptions of the Celestial Sphere plainly show, a model of the universe that has a stationary earth at its center works just fine for all purposes, "and, in fact, is still the way astronomers choose to model the observable sky...." That’s interesting, isn’t it? But on the heels of all such plain admissions comes the cautionary note to any reader who might be so thickheaded as to ask why the model that works and is used is not the true model! For example, on the same page with the first quotation, we read: Q: "Because of the Earth’s yearly orbital motion, the Sun appears to circle the ecliptic." 24 The warning following the second quotation is equally stern: Q: "Hmmm, but wait a minute. Physically the [Celestial Sphere] model does not make sense as we know that the Earth is not stationary...." 25 The fact is that both warnings are lies; there is no proof of the Earth yearly orbiting the sun, and there is no proof that the Earth is rotating. The Celestial Sphere is God's Astronomical Model for producing the Truth about the Universe, the Earth, and Mankind.
Positional Astronomy Library
Quotation: "SLALIB is a library used by writers of positional-astronomy applications. Most of the 185 routines [helio-based, big bang paradigm] are concerned with astronomical position and time, but a number have wider trigonometrical [i.e., "distance"] ...applications." 26
Comment: Basically, it seems that the bulk of all computer software for modern cosmology utilizes this service or a similar one. Except for a few geocentric coordinates where they can’t be avoided, all routines are based on a rotating, orbiting earth...as are the spurious Besselian trigonometric distance benchmarks.
Quotation: SLALIB has "...no routines for calculating physical ephemerides [positions] of Solar-System bodies." 27
Comment: I take this to mean that all the "routines" including "astrometry" (distance measuring) that are provided for computer programmers are designed solely for deep, deep space cosmology, and that all such routines assume an orbiting earth and a universe that is billions of light years thick. Many Q: "individual experts have written their own software already" we are informed. 28 Whoever does it, the point is that all of today’s cosmological applications routinely promote a universe--with billions of galaxies and trillions upon trillions of stars--that is already 15 billion light years thick and growing. This whole foundation is built on sand, i.e., the sand of a mythological moving earth and the sand of the false religious "creation scenario" of Kabbalism.
Quotation: "Infrared astronomy is the study of celestial objects by means of the infrared radiation they emit, in the wavelength range from about 1 micrometer to about 1 millimeter. All objects, from trees and buildings on the earth to distant galaxies, emit infrared (IR) radiation.... Most of the energy radiated by objects ranging from interstellar matter to planets lies in the IR wavelengths; IR observations are therefore significant in studying asteroids, comets, planetary satellites, and interstellar dust clouds where stars are forming. Finally, because the expansion of the universe shifts energy to longer wavelengths, most of the visible radiation emitted by stars and galaxies during the early stages of the formation of the universe is now shifted to the IR range; studies of the most distant objects in the IR spectrum are necessary if astronomers are to understand how the universe was formed.... COBE [Cosmic Background Explorer] detected small temperature variations in the cosmic microwave background radiation that provided vital clues to the nature of the early universe and its evolution since the ‘big bang’...." 29
Comment: Here is a prime example of a technology with a proven utility on earth being used to further the big bang paradigm where it is incapable of proving anything without claiming easily falsified and programmed "small temperature variations" [See: Redshift Fraud, pp. 11,12], etc. Does anyone think that only greedy corporate CEO’s from Enron, etc., "cook their books"? The Space "Science" Establishment has more to lose than any 50 giant corporations in the world, and they will do anything to keep the Kabbalic Universe Mythology alive. Speaking of "cooking the books"--an Accountants jargon for crooked bookkeeping"--connect these dots....
Quotation: "The Cookbook Camera is a CCD camera which I built [and used with] a 16-inch, f/4.5 Newtonian Reflector telescope.... Color images on this page [spiral galaxy and halo nebulae] have been produced by using one of two methods. Most of the color images were obtained using cyan, magenta, and yellow filters.... This method...combines a series of exposures through each of the colored filters... The second method...combines a white (no-filter) luminance image with a series of exposures through red, green, and blue filters to provide chrominance.... 30
Comment: And you thought all those pretty color pictures of planets and galaxies and nebulae, on your Telly and in books and magazines, etc., were the real thing??
Quotation: "Astroart 3.0 is a complete software for image processing, photometric astrometry, CCD control and image stacking for CCD and film imaging. Advanced filters: Maximum entropy deconvolution [i.e., the freedom to apply any number to explain complicated things they can’t understand]; Image stacking: Automatic on sets of images, pixel precision....Alignment and rotation...automatic processing...color maximum entropy performs more iteration time; up to 4x faster than other software [i.e., "more iteration time" refers to the measure of the frequency of an occurring event within a system (universe) and the assignment of any probability of distribution in the universe.]31
Comment: All functions are premised on a heliocentric "solar" system and an expanding universe paradigm, of course. "Gee whiz" gimmicks will help you play the game more efficiently and make it more fun.... just don’t ever wonder where the facts are that make this a "science" exercise and not just a computer game with a hidden indoctrination facilitator that is far more clever than any of the announced features! For example: You might want to learn Q: "How to enhance dust halos in high resolution CCD Images of Comet C/1995 01" by going to this webpage: 32 Or, you might want to learn about Q: "The KISS Principle in CCD Imaging", or, "how many interesting images can you make with ridiculously simple equipment?" (where you can also learn to "deconvolute", i.e., remove or separate any complications that arise). 33 Or, you might want to Q: "create a sort of unsharp mask...: this will softly blur the image".34 Hey, I’m not knocking all this and a ton of other "imaging" techniques for real and imagined objects in space. It’s called "Astroart" after all, and these are artists adding a little zip and dash and color to the sport. Just remember, it is artwork that enhances a certain religion’s concept of the universe, nothing more and nothing less.
Mass - Luminosity - Magnitude - Distance
Quotation: "Physically, Polaris is a very massive star of the ‘F’ (bright yellow) classification. It is particularly notable as being one of the nearest Cepheid variables to Earth.... This is important because Polaris’ four-day cycle of swelling and contraction is directly related to its mass, which is in turn related to its luminosity. This means that we can calculate the star’s absolute magnitude with some certainty, and comparing this with its observed apparent magnitude, we can compute its distance...which is just over 431 light years. 35a
Comment: Let’s see.... "431 light years".... That is roughly 2,500,000,000,000,000 miles [two quadrillion, five hundred trillion miles...or about twenty eight trillion times as far away as the Sun...(and this is one of the "nearby stars" in the current cosmological video game!)]. Now, we’ve seen it admitted that telescopes simply have not been able to resolve [i.e., show any detail] about any star. They are just "points of light" no matter what they try, and that is the bottom line. But note the alleged known detail involving "variables" and how this allegedly determines mass...which is then connected to its luminosity which, in turn, allows a calculation of the star’s absolute magnitude which can then be compared with its apparent magnitude and viola!...we get a distance of "just over" two quadrillion, five-hundred trillion miles! Along with TIME, "DISTANCE" is the name of the game, folks. It’s the heartbeat of the Big Bang Kabbalic Kosmos. But this stuff is a joke! "Cepheid variables", my foot! "...four day cycle of swelling and contraction"...give us a break! They can’t even get an honest angular measurement, but they can theorize all the mass, luminosity, absolute and apparent magnitude, and swelling and contraction and arrive at a distance that is "just over" 431 light years...not "about 400 or 425 or even 430, but "just over" 431! [This kind of aura of "scientific exactitude" is always a dead giveaway of a cover-up for deception. The same false science arrogance has always been evident in age claims by evolutionists. One example of hundreds: "For 167 million years dinosaurs dominated the world of the beast and then mysteriously vanished from the earth. 35b The Earth--along with the sun and planets--is said to be going around the Milky Way Galaxy at about 500,000 MPH. How long does it take to go around once? This source says 200-230 million years. 36 This source says 225 million years. 37 This one says 250, million years. 38 That’s a range of 50,000,000 years! And there is zero hard evidence that we are moving at all! Liar, liar; you’re pants are on fire!]
Apparent Magnitude & Absolute Magnitude
Quotation: "To a great extent, the brightness of objects in the sky depends on their position [distance from Earth] in space. Sirius is the brightest star in the sky, but it is a dwarf star, and not particularly luminous in stellar terms [in dictionary terms brightness and luminous are the same] - it appears brilliant because it is less than nine light years [c.50 trillion miles] away. By comparison, the star Deneb in Cygnus appears much fainter than Sirius in the sky, but is actually a supergiant thousands of times more luminous than Sirius - it appears fainter because it is more than three thousand light years [c.18 quadrillion miles] away. For this reason, the brightness of objects as they appear in the sky is properly referred to as their apparent magnitude [i.e., what you can actually see and measure]. A separate scale exists [oh boy!] - absolute magnitude - to describe the intrinsic brightness [the one made up from jerking spectrum technology around to get it on the Kabbalic distance scale] of an object, irrespective of the location of its observer...." [a meaningless statement...how many options does an observer really have??]. 39
Comment: We have just witnessed a massive hornswoggle that is a major part of this Orwellian doublespeak concerning a given star’s magnitude...and ultimately its distance. Let’s see how that "separate scale" for "Absolute Magnitude" is derived:
Quotation: "A means of describing the intrinsic brightness of a star or other object: the effect of distance on the object’s magnitude is eliminated by calculating its brightness as if it lay a fixed distance of ten parsecs (about 33 light years) from the Sun. 40
Comment: Whoa! Can’t we all see how this calculation of the brightness based on a fixed distance for all stars gives a carte blanche license to assign any size and distance to every point of light seen or imagined beyond that fixed distance??! THIS IS A MAJOR KEY TO UNDERSTANDING HOW A 15 BILLION LIGHT YEAR THICK UNIVERSE WITH BILLIONS OF GALAXIES FULL OF ALL SIZES OF STARS HAS BEEN CREATED BY A FALSE SCIENCE ESTABLISHMENT. After all, 99.99% of all the stars claimed in the Big Bang Kabbalic universe are said to exist at distances of hundreds and thousands and millions and billions of light years beyond this fixed distance marker--33 light years--for the calculation of brightness. Absolute Magnitude is an Absolute Joke, and the joke is on all of us! [Furthermore, when we recall that the Besselian parsecs are derived from an unproved earth orbit model providing a mythical 186,000,000 mile baseline for an angle to a "nearby star", we realize that even the 33 light year distance marker is part of the joke, and that the foundation for all "this joke is on you" levity goes back to the one---now if you’ve heard this one, stop me--about how the Earth rotates on an axis and orbits the sun.... ] Actually, every bit of the high sounding pseudo-science that has been stuffed into the Kabbalic Paradigm by their ad hoc formulas, mathematical fumididdles, and technology manipulation, can be explained simply and adequately in the light of all that is known. That is to say that it all can be explained by the Biblical Geocentrism Model of a universe that is less than one light day thick with the stars stars circling the Earth nightly [See: Size-Structure Pt 4] and being reflected off of a crystalline dome encasing this temporary universe created by the Biblical God. [See: Size-Structure Pt 2, (p.6) - Size-Structure Pt 1, (pp.6.7)]
Radiation of Light
Quotation: "Commonly, radiation refers to the electromagnetic spectrum, which, in order of decreasing wavelength, includes radio, microwave, infrared, visible-light, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma-ray emissions. All of these travel through space at the speed of light (186,000 mi per sec) but differ in wavelength and frequency.... All types of electromagnetic radiation can be reflected and absorbed in the same manner as is visible light...." 41
Comment: The only certain point here is that "All types of electromagnetic radiation can be reflected and absorbed in the same manner as is visible light." This fact can be applied directly to the earth-centered Biblical Model of the Universe wherein starlight is reflected countless times off of a crystalline dome in patterns that are erroneously being attributed to more stars, galaxies, nebulae, etc.
Quotation: "...We don’t know exactly what Light is, or what the nature of Light is.... The question of whether Light is a wave or a particle is still being debated." 42
Comment: Obviously this dilemma is reason enough by itself to put all stellar distance dogma over in the science-fiction section part of the library. In spite of all the cocksure news releases to the contrary, Space "science" still doesn’t know what the nature of Light really is or how their spectral analyses are affected by it.
Quotation: "Wave theory, like Darwin’s theory, is a natural theory.... Wave theory is only the beginning of another way to understand the universe.... Wave theory, which like Darwin’s theory is based primarily on the natural sciences which show that everything is subject to change...." 43
Comment: This bias toward the wave theory of light propagation seems to be based on the belief that it supports the evolutionary mind-set behind a Big Bang Kabbalist universe better than the particle theory. The idea that "everything is subject to change" is diametrically opposed to all that is actually known about the universe, and to the Biblical teaching that stability and predictability describe the course of life--everything "after its kind"--the changelessness of the heavens-- attested to by all observational evidence--and the nature of God Himself, for example, Who Is "the same, yesterday, and today, and forever" (Heb.13:8).
Quotation: "According to the relativity theory: It is impossible for a particle to have a velocity faster than the velocity of Light in a void.... Einstein considered the last point to be fundamental to the theory of relativity. Recently, a discovery was made that could change the entire theory of relativity. This discovery was that electromagnetic waves can obtain a velocity greater than that of Light.... What is the effect of this? Does this destroy the theory of relativity? There haven’t been very many studies on this yet, and there isn’t much information available, so we still don’t know...." 44
Comment: Again, the fat is in the fire on this one. The only interest here in this ongoing controversy is whether there is a promotion of the wave theory over the particle theory as part of the distance and age figures concocted to advance the Big Bang Kabbalic Agenda. If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck....
Quotation: "Standard Candles are objects of a given class (e.g., certain types of stars, supernovas, etc.) whose distance is computed by comparing the observed brightness to an assumed absolute luminosity." 45
Comment: Here again is a major distance computation based on a totally assumed Absolute Luminosity which--as we saw earlier--is pre-set for any stars beyond an already phony 33 light years. As noted, at least 99.99% of all the alleged trillions times trillions of stars in the Big Bang Universe are claimed to be hundreds, thousands, millions, and billions of light years distant from Earth. That means that essentially all "standard candle" distance figures have no basis in reality.
The Drake Equation
Quotation: "The famous Drake Equation gives the number of intelligent civilizations able to communicate within our own galaxy> N=R*fs*fp*ne*f1*f1*fc*L<". 46
Comment: Drake partnered with Sagan in concocting this perfect example of a pseudo-scientific equation for arriving at "the number of intelligent civilizations able to communicate within our own galaxy".
Quotation: "In this equation, the number of advanced technical civilizations N is assumed by multiplying the following variables: N = 250 billion (number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy)***fp = 1/4 (fraction of stars that have planetary systems)***ne = 2 (number of planets in a given system that are ecologically suitable for life)***f1 = 1/2 (fraction of otherwise suitable planets on which life actually arises)***f1 = 1/10 (fraction of inhabited planets on which an intelligent form of life evolves)***fc = 1/10 (fraction of planets inhabited by intelligent beings on which a communicative technical civilization develops)***fL = 1/100 (fraction of a planetary lifetime graced by a technical civilization)***N = 6 million (approximately)." 47 Comment: SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) is something you hear about quite a bit. One example: Lieutenant "Bud" on the popular "JAG" TV series is an avid promoter of SETI on the program, as was made plain in a segment I saw a couple of nights ago. Operating under [Quote]: "The Planetary Society" (of which Dr. Carl Sagan was the first president)... " is a non-profit, tax-exempt membership organization (100,000 dues paying members) dedicated to the exploration of the solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life". The Drake Equation.. "was developed by Carl Sagan and Frank Drake at Cornell University."48 At the formative meeting at Green Bank in 1961... Q: "conference members concluded that the number of communicating planets could range from fewer than 1000 to more than a billion. Most of them thought the higher number a more likely estimate. ."...they called for a vigorous radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence, using very large computers, and patience to search for at least 30 years" 49 [That was 50 years ago and the Search has found absolutely nothing, nada, goose egg. Sagan--who is often quoted from the first line in his book Cosmos which was based on the blockbuster TV series by the same name (‘The Cosmos is all that is or ever was or ever will be’)--also himself admitted before he died in ’96 that of his NASA supported [and taxpayer funded] missions: Q: "None of these [spacecraft] encounters has yielded compelling, or even strongly suggestive, indications of extraterrestrial life." 50
Quotation: "SCIENTISTS WIDEN THE HUNT FOR ALIEN LIFE...Dumb or brainy, fair or hideous, extraterrestrial life forms are often pictured by scientists and writers of science fiction [the perfect oxymoron!] as inhabiting worlds just the right distance from stars--neither too hot nor too cold.... But, a quiet revolution is now challenging this view and shaking the foundations of exobiology, the study of the possibility of life elsewhere in the cosmos [i.e., a "science" with no data whatsoever!]. Alien life, the new thinking goes, might not actually need the warming rays of a nearby star. It might thrive inside dim moons and planets.... Now scientists wonder whether similar environments [to the Earth’s] elsewhere in the universe are home to alien microbial hordes and, in some cases, to large beasts and beings higher up the extraterrestrial food chain. This change in thinking drives the excitement over Mars and Europa, a large moon of Jupiter.... Scientists also speculate that the interiors of up to ten bodies in the solar system may harbor extraterrestrial forms of life.... ‘We’re in a paradigm shift’, Dr. Frank D. Drake, a pioneer in the scientific hunt for extraterrestrials, said in an interview."[See: Icke et al] 51
Comment: You will recognize "Dr. Drake" from the "famous Drake Equation", who, along with Dr. Sagan and other excited Planetary Society members settled on "scientifically" finding within 30 years about six million planets within the Milky Way alone where we could expect to discover highly evolved "extraterrestrials" playing a comparable version of Rachmananov’s Second Piano Concerto and going about in at least 1932 model Stutz Bearcats...and quite possibly some in "flying saucers". Alas, the Search has produced nothing--except a lot of hot air hype and pleas for more billions for funny telescopes, etc.--and the deadline is long past. Thankfully, no new "Drake Equation" seems to be in evidence for the latest excitement and expectations of finding microbes and large beasts and...who knows, maybe some chimpanzees riding scooters in Q: "subsurface environments" on "Mars, Europa and extrasolar planets". 52 Drake is not without support in this new "paradigm shift" that was launched--interestingly--just months after Dr. Sagan died without the first piece of evidence for his Milky Way paradigm. Indeed:
Quotation: "The tumult [over the paradigm shift] is changing not only mind-sets but also exploratory plans. [Whoa!] The National Science Foundation, the government’s main source of financing for basic science [basic what?] recently started a program called Life in Extreme Environments...and NASA is revamping its whole approach to alien hunts...[Did you get that?!] even though experts still debate the likely size of light-based "environments... and Circumstellar Habitable Zones"..... Dr. Gold of Cornell proposed in 1992 that bacteria might be ubiquitous throughout the upper few miles of Earth’s crust...and that ‘Such life may be widely disseminated in the universe...suggesting that the solar system alone might harbor as many as 10 alien biospheres’.... ‘Planets that go through a volcanic phase may routinely spawn life’, says U. of Wash. oceanographer Dr. Delaney... ‘It’s the evolution to the higher forms,’ he added, ‘that may be the unusual event’." 53
Comment: There is still more than enough zeal and money to keep up the search for those elusive highly evolved Star Trekian apparitions that former U. S. Pres. Carter (MA physics) and Pope John Paul II et al have sent messages to in the past. After over fifty years of abject failure to get any responses or demonstrate one indisputable piece of evidence for extraterrestrial life of any sort, NASA, the NSF and different scientists decided in ‘97 that they had better spread their bets out a bit. Hence, the big excitement over finding ways to get some "bunker buster" probes under the surface of the Moon, Mars, large asteroids, Jupiter, Saturn, a moon of Neptune, and other targets in the "solar" system. In 1992, as we saw, Dr. Gold of Cornell [where Sagan was at that time] stressed Q: "...that bacteria might be ubiquitous throughout the upper few miles of Earth’s crust....and that ‘Such life may be widely disseminated in the universe...." Curiously, Dr. Chandra Wickramasinghe and Sir Fred Hoyle were articulating the bacteria theory widely at least four years before Gold wrote about it! Wickramasinghe in particular had already launched his and Hoyle’s "Panspermia" concept of how evolution began on Earth (and all over the universe) with bacteria being pooped out from passing comets during those always assumed billions of years. He said flatly that the Darwinian Model was incapable of explaining how evolution began on Earth or could crank it up anywhere else, and that comets nurturing bacteria in their wombs have been whooshing around the universe for billions of years seeding the earth and millions of other alleged planets...and this is the way all life really began, by golly. Don’t laugh! Comets pukeing out bacteria is the new savior of biological evolutionary mythology; "Panspermia" is now the unholy grail. [See: TSE Pt 1-Cosmic Ancestry] It looks to me like Dr. Gold--realizing that Darwinism is incapable of explaining life’s beginnings--tuned in on Wickramasinghe’s frequency as the wave of the future for biological evolutionism, and he and all the other excited folks have got The National Science Foundation putting up the big (taxpayer) bucks and NASA supplying the exobiologists (scientists with no data) and the launch pads. "Bunker buster" designs for plowing through the surface of those planets and moons and coming up with at least some bacteria are already built and headed for a Martian moon. And, of course, these probes wouldn’t take with them the bacteria they are going to find. Nah...how could you even suggest....Perish the thought!
Further Comment: NASA’s pre-programmed software for its computerized telescopes and cameras [See: NASAs Hanky-Panky] --both land-based and on space vehicles--is a ready-made setup for fraud in pursuit of its goal to present the world with "confirmation" of evolving life in outer space. That stated goal: "to find our cosmic roots" is the heart of NASA’s "Origins Program" and no lie is too big to bring it to pass. Does anyone have the remotest doubt that the pre-programmed software in those telescopes and cameras is 100% locked into the "math" based on an orbiting earth and all of the fanciful fabrications of distances that we’ve seen up to now?? Don’t we all know that whoever controls the programming of computer software controls the results the computer gives?? Star distance garbage in, star distance garbage out!! Pure and simple.... Nobody talks about this with NASA officials...nor the whole evolutionary mind-set controlling the Kabbalist Space Agenda, but the possibilities for establishing a lie with computer software and totally fooling people with the result is a well known capability. All that is required is motive and the means to pull it off. The whole Kabbalist Kosmology Agenda has both! [See: Space-Science Hypnosis] Here is a quick, clear, current, and important illustration of how computer software can establish a lie as the truth and fool people into thinking they are witnessing a wonderful marvel of technology at work:
Quotation: "Bob Urosevich heads Ohio-based Diebold Election Systems Inc. (DESI). His brother Todd is a vice-president at a competing company, Omaha-based Elections Systems & Software. These two companies count nearly 80 percent of the votes cast in the United States.... Aviel D. Rubin, an associate professor of computer science at Johns Hopkins and technical advisor of ISI, [issued] a 24-page report, "Analysis of an Electronic Voting System...released on July 23.... ‘The most fundamental problem with such a voting system is that the entire election hinges on the correctness, robustness, and security of the software within the voting terminal....’"54
Comment: The same concept applies precisely to the software in the computer programmed telescopes and cameras which have all but established the Copernican-based Big Bang Kabbalic Universe as "scientific virtual reality". [See: Virtual Reality Fraud] Writing in their book (VoteScam) on the power of fraudulent use of pre-programmed computer software in voting machines, James and Kenneth Collier concluded: "The concept is clear, simple, and it works. Computerized voting gives the power of selection, without fear of discovery, to whomever controls the computer."55 Apply that fact to the Virtual Reality Universe created by the Kabbalist controlled Space Program and you will begin to see how far God has allowed high-tech fraud to go before He exposes it and the world-controlling evolutionary mind-set which undergirds all of modern man’s "knowledge". [See: Knowledge Impact]
Quotation: "Based at the University of California, Berkeley, SETI [Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence] has recruited more that 4 million volunteers around the world...to scan the galaxies for space aliens. The volunteers download a screensaver that lets SETI access their computers when they’re not using them to help process the massive amount of data collected by the world’s largest radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Harnessing all that computer power and getting those processors to crunch data on a single project is what’s called distributed computing, or data harvesting.... Using special software that activates when the computer processor has been idle for a while, a PC set up for distributed use can wake up and do something positive--like looking for signals from outer space for SETI...." 56
Comment: Excuse me! Something productive?! After more than 50 years and who knows how many billions of dollars and endless movie, TV, and written media hype, there has not been the first burp from space on the screen. Nothing. Zero. Nichts. The only payoff--and it’s a big one!--is the steady boost in the religious stock of Kabbalic Evolutionism, Inc., which is listed as "Space Science" on the Big Board. And now they’ve got four million extra computers tithing their time and electricity to serve that religion’s "Origins Program" propaganda machine and bring in more converts! What a deal already! Try doing something comparable for the Biblical Model of the Universe with taxpayer money and see how far you get! But for the Kabbalic Model the vault is open and all media is at your disposal.... Verily:
Quotation: "...modern cosmology has become nothing but a morass of conflicting mathematical models.... Why should we pay any attention to these cosmological speculations? No one outside this professional clique of specialists in higher mathematics and theoretical physics can really understand them--especially when they disagree with each other and repeatedly revise their theories anyway....57
This is probably as good a place as any to shut down on these quotes which basically usher modern cosmology and all that is built on it over to the fiction stacks in the library. It is tempting to go on for other 15 or 20 pages with Big Bang Bashing quotes, but this should be enough to do the job.
Maybe later...if more is called for....
From Part I in this Series on "The Size and Structure of the Universe According to the Bible and Non-Theoretical Science" to this point at the end of Part VI, the evidence reveals that modern cosmology’s 15 billion year old and 15 billion light year thick universe takes the prize as the Blue Ribbon deception in all of recorded history. From its Copernican foundation to the latest "paradigm shift" there is not one single fact to be found in the entire knowledge-controlling concept. Not one.
By way of contrast, the Biblical Model of the size and structure of the universe based on a non-moving Earth at its center accommodates every aspect of what is actually known.
Go to Part VII to see: a) What the unmasking of this crowning deception masquerading as "science" means for everyone on Earth; b) Several illustrations promised in Part I which show the simplicity, clarity, beauty, and observed reality of our Biblically described temporary universe of less than one light day’s radius....
1 - "The Optical Interferometer: Completing the Work of Galileo", by Tyler Nordgren; http://www.nofs.navy.mil/projects/npoi/science/diam.htm, accessed: 5-14-03, p.2 of 5
2 - Ibid.
3 - "Redshift": Setterfield, http://www.setterfield.org/redshift.htm, 5-3-03, p. 2 of 21
4 - "Ask the Astronomer", Dr. Sten Odenwald; http://itss.raytheon.com/cafe/quadir/oops.html; accessed: 2 -9-03, p. 1 of 2
5 - "Goliath Telescope..." , Tariq Malik, http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/technology/owl_telescope-0207204.html, 7-24-02, pp. 1-3
6 - NASA - Space Science, http://spacescience.nasa.gov/, accessed: 5-8-03, p. 1 of 1
7 - "JPL News Release - Galaxy Evolution Explorer Mission Status", http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2003/69.cfm, 5-6-03, p. 1 of 2
8 - "ESO - An Introduction to Active and Adaptive Optics", http://eso.org/projects/aot/introduction.html, accessed: 6-11-03, pp. 1 & 2
9 - Back to Genesis, "The Outer Darkness", Henry M. Morris, Oct., ‘01, p. a, Quoting: Ron Cowen, "A Dark Force In The Universe", Science News, vol, 159, Apr. 7, 01, p. 218
10 -Ibid., p. b
11 -Back to Genesis, "What Astronomers Don’t Know", Henry M. Morris, July, 02, p. b, Quoting: Brad Lemley, "Guth’s Grand Guess", Discover (vol. 23, Apr. ‘02), p. 38
12 -Op. cit., Back to Genesis, "What Astronomers Don’t Know", HMM, July ‘02, p. c
13 -The Biblical Astronomer, vol. 12, #99, Winter 2002, Ed. Gerardus D. Bouw. Ph.D., "A Small Spherical Universe After All?", pp. 38,39
14 -"Redshift", http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~jh8h/glossary/redshift.htm, accessed: 6-12-03, p. 1
15 - "A New Non-Doppler Redshift", Paul Marmet, update of Physics Essays, 1988, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A OR6, http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/ HUBBLE/Hubblehtml, accessed: 6-12-03, p. 1 of 20
16 -Op. cit., "Redshift", astro.virginia.edu
17 -Op. cit., "A New Non-Doppler..."
18 -"Why Use An Interferometer?", cartoons by: Tyler Nordgren, http://www.nofs.navy.mil/ projects/npoi/whynpoi.htm, accessed; 5-14-03,
p. 3 of 5
20 -Ibid., p. 4
21 -"Massive North Star Polaris Surprises Scientists", http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/ astronomy/polaris_size_000614html, accessed: 5-14-03, p. 2 of 3
22 -"The Celestial Sphere", http://astrosun.tn.cornell.edu/courses/astro201/cel_sphere.htm, accessed: 3-10-03, p. 1 of 2
23 -"Celestial Sphere", http://zobu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/121/sep29/motions.html, accessed: 3-10-03, p. 1 of 2
26 -SLALIB--Positional Astronomy Library, P.T. Wallace, http://star-www.rl.ac.uk/star/docs/ sun67.htx/nodel.html, 9-6-01, p. 1 of 1
27 -Op. cit., SLALIB, "Objectives", p. 1 of 2
28 -Op. cit., SLALIB, "New Functions", p. 1 of 1
29 -"Infrared Astronomy", Infoplease.com, accessed: 5-15-03, pp. 1 of 2
30 -Jeff MacQuarrie’s "Astronomy CCD Images", http://members.aol.com/_ht_alccdastronomy/ ccdimage.htm?mtbrand=AOL_us, accessed: 5-17-03, p. 1 of 7
31 -Astroart - Image Processing Software, http://www.msb-astroart.com, 4-9-03, p. 1 of 1
32 -Astroart in LAB home page, M. Nicolini, http://chilioiolist/mnico//abindex.htm, accessed: 5-17-03, p. 1 of 1
33 -"The KISS Principle in CCD Imaging", http://wvi.com/~rberry/imaging/kissprinciple.htm, accessed: 5-17-03, p. 1 of 11
34 -Astroart in LAB #1, "How To Enhance Dust Halos...", M. Nicolini, http://chili.iol.it/lab/ tut_en1.htm, accessed: 5-17-03, p. 1 of 3
35a-eSky-Polaris, http://www.glyphweb.com/esky/stars/polaris.html, accessed: 10-13-03, p. 1 of 1
35b-"The World Too Fast For Dino?", The Miami Herald, 9-14-72, p. 18L
36 -"Milky Way", Infoplease.com, accessed: 5-15-03, p. 1 of 1
37 -"Your Sky Help: Proper Motion", http://www.fourmilab;.ch/yoursky/help/proper.html, accessed: 3-10-03, p. 1 of 3
38 -"Milky Way Galaxy", Eric Weisstein, http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/ MilkyWayGalaxy.html, accessed: 1-10-03, p. 1 of 1
39 -eSky: "Magnitude", www.glyphweb.com/esky/concepts/magnitude.html, accessed: 6-12-03, p. 1 of 1
40 -eSky: "Absolute Magnitude", www.glyphwebcom/esky/concepts/absolutemagnitude. html, accessed: 6-12-03, p. 1 of 1
41 -"Radiation", Infoplease.com, http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0840916.html, accessed: 5-15-03, p. 1 of 2
42 -The Optics - Quantum Optics - "LIght: Wave or Particle", http://library.thinkquest.org/ C003776/chino/course/wave_or_particle.htm, accessed:7-6-03, p. 1 of 1
43 -"Grand Unified Wave Theory: Wave Theory - The Speed of Light", (con’t. p.7), Dr. Chaim H. Tejman, http://www.grandunifiedtheory.org.il/speed7.htm, accessed: 4-27-03, p. 1 of 2
44 -The Optics - Quantum Optics - "Particles Faster Than Light?", http://thinkquest.org/C003776/ chino/course/faster_particles.htm, p. 1 of 2
45 -"Standard Candle", Eric Weisstein, http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/
StandardCandle.html, accessed: 1-10-03, p. 1 of 1
46 -Drake Equation Page - "The Drake Equation", http://www.seds.org/~rme/drake, html, accessed: 6-7-03, p. 1 of 4
47 -Stargazer Online// Carl Sagan; "Carl Sagan: The People’s Astronomer", by Richard Bell, accessed: 6-7-03, pp. 3, 4
48 -Ibid., pp. 1, 2
49 -The Planetary Society: SETI Page, "The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: A Short History", by Amir Alexander, http://planetary.org/html/UPDATES/seti/history/History07, htm, accessed: 6-7-03, p. 3
50 -"The Search for Extraterrestrial Life", Carl Sagan, Scientific American (‘94)....
51 -"Scientists Widen the Hunt for Alien Life", by William J. Broad, http://www.samsloan.com/ aliens.htm, 5-6-97, p. 1 of 4
52 -Ibid., pp. 1, 2
53 -Ibid., pp. 3 4
54 -"Analysis of an Electronic Voting System", Aviel D. Rubins, [DESI/ISI squabble has apparently removed this message from the internet...]
56 -"NASA’s Hight Tech Trick Helps Auto Researchers", by Mike Wendland, http://www.freep.com, 4-21-03, pp. 1,2
57 -"The Uncertain Speed of Light", Henry M. Morris, Back to Genesis, June, 2003, p. c